Λινξ 163: Πράγματα Για Διάβασμα

25 November 2014 | 2 σχόλια

1. Αυτοί που αποφασίζουν πώς λειτουργεί το ίντερνετ που κοιτάτε τώρα 

Μια πολύ ενδιαφέρουσα ανάλυση της λειτουργίας του W3C, του οργανισμού που ορίζει τα standards του world wide web.

The W3C has been meeting for twenty years, led by its director, Tim Berners-Lee, the principal creator of the Web. Its membership is drawn from close to four hundred academic, not-for-profit, and corporate organizations. Among its most engaged participants are large companies that build Web software and host enormous Web sites—ones like Google, Microsoft, and Facebook.

2. Ένα νέο φάρμακο: Τα κόπρανα

Το κομψό όνομα είναι FMT - η "μεταμόσχευση" κοπράνων σε ασθενείς που πάσχουν από αυτοάνοσα νοσήματα, αλλεργίες και άλλες παθήσεις.

Science writers love to cite the freakish fact that for every one of our cells we are hosts to ten microbial ones, and nowhere are there as many as in our digestive tracts, which house about a hundred trillion bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other tiny creatures. (As one gastroenterologist put it to me, with only mild exaggeration, “We’re ten per cent human and ninety per cent poo.”) Collectively, this invisible population is known as the gut microbiome, and lately it has become an object of intense scientific interest.

3. Η ιστορία της Άνγκελας Μέρκελ στον New Yorker και στο Vanity Fair

Δεν κατάλαβα γιατί, αλλά δύο περιοδικά του ίδιου ομίλου έχουν ταυτόχρονα εκτενή αφιερώματα στην καγκελάριο της Γερμανίας. Του New Yorker είναι καλύτερο κείμενο. Είναι το τρίτο λινκ από την ίδια πηγή, παρεμπιπτόντως -φοβερή δουλειά ο New Yorker αυτή την εβδομάδα. Τρία αποσπάσματα:

In a country where passionate rhetoric and macho strutting led to ruin, her analytical detachment and lack of apparent ego are political strengths. On a continent where the fear of Germany is hardly dead, Merkel’s air of ordinariness makes a resurgent Germany seem less threatening.

While most of Europe stagnates, Germany is an economic juggernaut, with low unemployment and a resilient manufacturing base. The ongoing monetary crisis of the euro zone has turned Germany, Europe’s largest creditor nation, into a regional superpower—one of Merkel’s biographers calls her “the Chancellor of Europe.” While America slides into ever-deeper inequality, Germany retains its middle class and a high level of social solidarity. Angry young protesters fill the public squares of countries around the world, but German crowds gather for outdoor concerts and beery World Cup celebrations. Now almost pacifist after its history of militarism, Germany has stayed out of most of the recent wars that have proved punishing and inconclusive for other Western countries. The latest E.U. elections, in May, saw parties on the far left and the far right grow more popular around the Continent, except in Germany, where the winners were the centrists whose bland faces—evoking economics professors and H.R. managers—smiled on campaign posters, none more ubiquitous than that of Merkel, who wasn’t even on the ballot. American politics is so polarized that Congress has virtually stopped functioning; the consensus in Germany is so stable that new laws pour forth from parliament while meaningful debate has almost disappeared.

Among German leaders, Merkel is a triple anomaly: a woman (divorced, remarried, no children), a scientist (quantum chemistry), and an Ossi (a product of East Germany). These qualities, though making her an outsider in German politics, also helped to propel her extraordinary rise.

merkel

4. Το ίδρυμα του Μπιλ Γκέιτς επιβάλλει τη δωρεάν δημοσίευση των ερευνών 

Μια πολύ ενδιαφέρουσα και σημαντική αλλαγή: Από το 2017 και μετά κάθε επιστημονική έρευνα που χρηματοδοτείται από το Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation θα πρέπει να δημοσιεύεται οπωσδήποτε σε επιστημονικά περιοδικά που είναι δωρεάν.

The next move is up to the publishers, many of whom -- even those that are open access in name -- have policies that conflict with the Gates policy, meaning that they will not be able to publish Gates-funded research as of 2017, unless they change those policies.

5. Η ακτινογραφία της Ρωσικής ολιγαρχίας

Από αυτό το βιβλίο, μια καταγραφή των ανθρώπων που έχουν όλη την ισχύ και το χρήμα στη Ρωσία του Πούτιν. Μόνο 110 άνθρωποι κατέχουν το 35% της οικονομίας της χώρας.

The buccaneering oligarchs who em-erged in the 1990s were bright, self-made men who ruthlessly exploited every opportunity offered by the transition economy. Mr Putin’s cohort is different. Most of them are secretive, unremarkable, grey men, with backgrounds in the security services. They prospered, not by building new businesses, but by suffocating existing ones and picking up the pieces or sucking money out of the state.

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